Cognitive therapy has described underlying dysfunctional beliefs as schemas. Schemas are “cognitive structures” according to cognitive therapy founder Aaron T. Beck. Another way to approach a schema is to think of it as a story deeply embedded in a person’s mind and used as a way to interpret the world. Uncovering and challenging such stories, and helping a person to understand how these stories empower their decisions and values can be a transformative process. Through such a process a person who has absorbed and lives according to stories of helplessness or victimization can learn to tell new stories about themselves as the hero of their own journey.